Those affected include Europe's political class. Polish President Andrzej Duda tested positive for Covid-19 on Friday, according to a tweet from Prime Minister Blazej Spychalski on Saturday.
Duda said he was fine, asymptomatic and would continue to work in isolation.
"As you can see, I am full of strength. I hope it will remain so. However, the fact is that I have to insulate. Together with my wife, we abide by the rules of isolation in an ironic way," he said in a video posted out on Twitter Saturday.
"I would like to apologize to all those who have to go through quarantine procedures in connection with meeting me in the last days … I hope none of you get sick."
The Polish president used the video to appeal to people about being particularly careful with senior citizens, as they were particularly at risk from Covid-1
Duda's diagnosis comes as the country reported 13,632 new cases on Friday, the highest daily count since the pandemic began. The case was more than 50% higher than Monday's 7,482 cases.
"The second wave has hit the whole of Europe equally," Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki said on Friday.
The five countries with the highest infection rates worldwide are all of Europe, according to Johns Hopkins University's latest moving average, analyzed by CNN.
The hardest hit nations are the Czech Republic, Belgium, the Netherlands, Switzerland and France.
In all five countries, the number of new infections has increased since the beginning of October.
French President Emmanuel Macron warned on Friday that his country must live with the virus in the long run.
"When I listen to the researchers and the Scientific Council, we anticipate [living with the virus] at best until next summer," Macron said, speaking during a visit to a health center.
Macron added that his government aims to introduce a new coronavirus. restrictions in a targeted way.
On the same day, France reported 42,032 new cases in 24 hours, a new record, according to the French health agency. Around 46 million people in the country are exposed to a coronavirus curfew at night in France.
The picture in neighboring Spain is less dramatic, but the country's daily average remains high at 299 per million on 19 October.
Spanish Prime Minister Pedro Sanchez called on the public to limit mobility and help fight a new wave during a speech on Friday.
"In the coming weeks, the months will be tough, very tough," Sanchez said, adding that while Spain has officially registered more than 1 million cases, he estimates the real number is more than 3 million.
The Spanish regions of Castile and Leon and Valencia have announced plans to impose a night ban in the coming days. The region of Andalusia has also requested a curfew for the city of Granada.
Political scandal in the Czech Republic
A daily case record was also set in the Czech Republic, surpassing 15,000 new cases in 24 hours for the first time since the pandemic began. Deaths in the country increased by 126, reaching a total of 1,971. The nation is the hardest hit country in Europe, according to the European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC).
Meanwhile, the country's health minister Roman Prymula is in the grip of a political scandal after being photographed leaving a restaurant in Prague late Wednesday night, just days after announcing a strict lock-in.
Restaurants in the Czech Republic have been closed for site service since Wednesday, October 14, so the minister's actions were against the rules.
Prymula said on Friday that he knew the owner of the restaurant, who allowed him to sit in a private lounge for coffee.
He has refused to resign, despite pressure from the country's prime minister to do the. Prime Minister Andrej Babis said earlier that he would resign Prymula if he did not resign.
The EU has sent the Czech Republic 30 fans while officials act to control the second wave.
"The Czech Republic is going through difficult times. The number of cases of coronavirus is increasing. Hospitals need medical equipment. The EU is here to help," European Commission President Ursula von der Leyen said on Thursday.
Italian governors demand locking
In Italy, local governors demand stricter coronavirus restrictions, with some fearing a recurrence of the spring wave. Italy was one of the hardest hit countries in Europe in March.
On Friday, the country reported a daily list of infections, with 16,079 new cases reported the previous day.
The Italian Ministry of Health also reported 136 Covid-related deaths and 66 more patients in intensive care, bringing the national total to 992.
The governor of Campania, Vincenzo De Luca, has called for a national shutdown and has announced that he will close the region "for 30 to 40 days" to reduce the spread of the virus.
"Said in a brutally clear way, I will not find ourselves in front of military trucks carrying hundreds of coffins," De Luca said in a video message Friday.  "Current data on infection render any kind of partial measure ineffective."
The governor of Lombardy, Attilio Fontana, called the autumn wave a "dramatic situation."
The Italian government has so far resisted a national shutdown. . "A lock-in can be avoided if quick, urgent and strong measures are taken now," Health Minister Roberto Speranza said on Thursday.
CNN's Fanny Bobille, Valentina Di Donato, Tim Lister, Claudia Rebaza, Tomas Etzler, and Jennifer Hauser contributed to this report.