With 49 people on board, the Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner flight completed 10,066 miles from New York to Sydney in 19 hours and 16 minutes.
Qantas Group chief Alan Joyce said: "This is a very important first for aviation. Hopefully, it is a preview of a regular service that will speed up how people travel from one side of the globe to the other."  Research on the health and well-being of those on board was carried out during the flight with tests ranging from pilot brain waves, melatonin levels and alertness to passenger training classes.
Joyce added: "We know that ultra-long flights pose some additional challenges, but that has been true every time technology has allowed us to fly on. The research we do should give us better strategies to improve comfort and well-being along the way."
The next test flight will take place in November, from London to Sydney, while there will be a new flight from New York to Sydney before the end of the year.
Qantas has said it hopes to operate direct flights from three cities on Australia's east coast ̵
Captain Sean Golding said: "Overall, we are very pleased for how the flight went and there is great some of the data we need to consider to make this a regular service. "
Qantas Boeing 787 Dreamliner aircraft arrive at Sydney International airport after flying directly from New York on Sunday, October 20, 2019.
David Gray / Getty Images for Qantas / GETTY IMAGES
How are passengers monitored?
Researchers from Sydney University Charles Perkins Center, Monash University and the Alertness Safety and Productivity Cooperative Research Center – a scientific program supported by the Australian Government – will investigate the impact of the long flight on board.
Passengers in the main cabin had surveillance devices, and experts from the Charles Perkins Center will study how their "health, well-being and body clock" were affected by a set of variables that included lighting, food and drink, movement, sleep patterns and inflight entertainment.
Those on board were asked to keep a daily log prior to the flight and for two weeks thereafter, to show how they feel and how they have coped with jet lag.
Pilots and cabin crew will also keep sleep diaries. Cameras were mounted in the cockpit to record pilot alertness.
"People seem to be very different when it comes to the experience of jet lag – and we need more research on what contributes to jet lag and travel fatigue, so we can try and reduce the impact of long-haul flights," said Professor Stephen Simpson, Academic director at the University of Sydney & # 39; s Charles Perkins Center, for CNN Travel.
"We have a long way to go in understanding how the wide variety of influences – including nutrition, hydration, exercise, sleep and light – can work together for maximum benefit."
Monash University researchers will focus on flight crew and record melatonin levels before, during and after flights, as well as study brain wave data from electroencephalogram units carried by the pilots.
This information will then be shared with the Civil Aviation Safety Authority "to inform regulatory requirements related to ultra-long-haul aircraft," Qantas said in a statement.
Francesca Street and Emily Dixon contributed to this report.