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Big Recession 10 Years Later: The thriving US economy has these 5 scars



It would have been wrong.

Here are still starving America after ten years at mend.

1. Gains for Big Cities, Losses for Small Cities

The decline and its demand shifted the geography of prosperity in America – and workers still have not recovered.

Production work, which had fallen since the 1980s, suddenly fell between 2007 and 2009 when the factories failed. It left the cities of Michigan, Ohio and upstate New York gasping. "These places were hit harder by the recession and are slower to recover than the national average," said Dave Swenson, finance professor at Iowa State University.

In a double whammy for dwellers in diminishing cities, places where new opportunities arose ̵
1; larger cities such as San Francisco and New York – did not add nearly enough apartments after the housing crisis to keep up with demand. The payoffs in the big cities have concentrated on the top, so even if you found a mid-career job serving the technical or financial industry, moving to take the job was not economically feasible.

"The cost of living in the core areas has just become prohibitive," Swenson said. "It has slowed some of that transition to the most urban areas."

2. State budgets atrophied

State and local tax revenues gained massive success during the recession, and were only partially repaid by federal grants, and forced widespread closures that weakened all kinds of public services. On the surface, according to Pew Charitable Trusts, the tax collection has recovered – in 2018, revenues in all 50 countries exceeded their 2008 level by 13.4%.

However, the state has also had to cope with rising costs, especially for Medicaid. It has made it harder to allocate funds to other priorities. Government spending on infrastructure as a share of gross domestic product is as low as it has been for 50 years, Pew found, and government authorities have 132,300 fewer non-educated employees than they did in 2008.

Funding for schools is still short. Twenty-five states now use less pr. The K-12 student than they did in 2008, and the state's higher education expenditure is 13% lower, as public universities have shifted the teaching load to students – as a study found reduced degrees achieved among both candidates and undergraduates.

3. The Mixed Blessing of Low Interest

To keep money circulating after the financial crisis, the Federal Reserve reduced short-term interest rates to almost zero by the end of 2008 and did not begin to increase them until 2015. Unprecedented action, along with several rounds of bond purchases, known as quantitative easing, pushed money into the economy and driven an epic stock market recovery.

But just like taking painkillers for a long time, there can be some side effects, Fed's monetary policy measures gave rise to some unintended consequences. For example, low bond yields led the large funds that controlled trillions in investments to put their money into private equity and hedge funds that paid high interest rates. As a result, first public offerings, which allow a wider group of people to benefit from the creation of new businesses, almost dried up.

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Meanwhile, low interest rates have been bad news for pension funds, which mainly depend on bond yields to remain solvent. Public pension funds accounted for only 66% of their liabilities in 2016, down from 86% in 2007, according to Pew Charitable Trusts. For the 100 largest private pensions, this ratio was 87.1% in 2018, according to the actuarial company Milliman, compared to 105.7% in 2007.

For pensioners expecting fixed income securities as government bonds, low interest rates may also mean a lower standard of living.

"Low interest rates, while having many benefits, also have many costs for society," said Kevin Kliesen, economist at the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.

And it's just short-term rates that the Fed directly controls. The long-term interest rates were in decline before the financial crisis, and the subsequent recession depressed them even further. Fed officials are now struggling to link inflation to the 2% target.

These low interest rates can sap the economy of vitality. A study published this year showed that they give larger companies a greater incentive to invest than less. It bridges market concentration and reduces business dynamics – that is, the ability to start up to disturb residents.

"When interest rates go down, they favor disproportionate market leaders as opposed to market successors," said Atif Mian, CFO at Princeton University, who co-authored the study. The effect he found "is big enough at low interest rates so as not to have any expansive effect on the economy anymore."

4. A hobbled generation

In some downswing, the worst hit group is the one who just begins.

A study published this year by economists at Stanford and the University of California-Los Angeles found that people entering the labor market during the recession have a lower lifespan, especially if they only have upper secondary education. They also have a higher death rate in the middle of their lives.
The major recession, which was unusually deep and prolonged, has a lasting effect on youth graduating from college in 2010 and 2011. Employment and earnings are lower among these classes, economist Jesse Rothstein, University of California-Berkeley, found.
As they advance to age when previous generations bought homes and had children, these markers for adult life are less attainable and not because millennials do not want them. Rather, the Federal Reserve found, they have fewer resources to work with – and higher student debt.

5. The Shadow of Fear

But sustained the economic effects of the recession may be, the psychological effects fade even slower. Sallie Krawcheck: Wall Street Lack of Diversity contributed to the financial crisis "class =" media__image "src =" http://cdn.cnn.com/cnnnext/dam/assets/190620150435-diversity-wall-street-file-large-169. jpg "/>
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